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Introduction

An embolism denotes to anything unpleasant that confined within the vascular system. An air embolism is a bubble or bubbles of gas confined within the blood vessels. The bubbles at some point cut off the blood supply to a specific area of the body. Air embolism can cause significant and permanent damage to the central nervous system and hence should be treated as an emergency treatment. A venous embolism is not as serious as an arterial embolism. Few medical processes can cause air to enter the venous system via anintravenous drip. In sporadic cases, they can reach the heart and disrupt its workings. Arterial gas embolisms are much more serious. Embolism could possibly prevent oxygenated blood from reaching the target organ and it cause ischemia. If the heart is affected it can produce a heart attack. In case arterial gas embolism reaches the brain, it is stated to as a cerebral embolism and can cause a stroke.
1.      When one or more air bubbles enter a vein or artery and block it an air embolism could be.
2.      When doctor suspects an air embolism they may execute an ultrasound or CT scan to confirm.
3.      Major symptoms of a severe air embolism is low blood pressure or difficulty breathing

Causes

In some medical procedures small amounts of air could enter into the body which can be serious however it usually happen very rarely. Majority of air embolism cases encompass diving. It is found that air embolism is the most common cause of death among divers. There are two means in which an air embolism could form as a result of dive.
. 1.       Decompression sickness: AN embolism will occur once a diver faces too quickly. As a diver descends their body together with the gas they're respiratory (oxygen and nitrogen) is below increasing pressure. The diver perpetually uses the oxygen however the nitrogen pools within the diver's tissues. If the diver returns to the surface too fleetly, the nitrogen isn't given the prospect to be reabsorbed into the blood and can leave the tissue as bubbles of gas.
2. Pneumonia barotrauma: once a diver holds their breath throughout a speedy ascent trauma is caused to the liner of the lungs. Because the pressure decreases throughout the ascent the degree of the air within the lungs will increase. If the breath is control voluntarily the little air sacs of the lungs  will rupture. These tears will enable gas to pass into the blood.
Other causes of air embolism are induced (caused by a medical intervention). These will include:
3. Endogenous drip: most ordinarily via disconnected central blood vessel catheterization
4. Hemodialysis: treatment for nephropathy
5. Laparoscopic insufflations: otherwise called hole surgery, air is usually pumped up into the house between the organs and therefore the skin to clear a passage for the Dr. to work
6. Open surgical procedure
7. Respiratory organ biopsy: removal of a part of respiratory organ for examination
8. Radiologic procedures: specifically wherever the injection of dye is important
9. Childbirth: significantly Cesarean deliveryn
10. Examination retrograde electroencephalography (ERCP): a procedure designed to look at the duct gland and gall ducts, ERCP involves injecting a dye into the region via Associate in Nursing medical instrument.

Symptoms

1 .      Pain within the joints or muscles
2.      Irregular heart rhythms
3.      Blurring of vision
4.      Anxiety
5.      Itchy skin
6.      Seizures
7.      Bloody frothing from the mouth
8.      Low pressure and symptom
9.      Difficulty catching breath
10.  Chest pain
11.  Vertigo
12.  Extreme fatigue
13.  Tremors
14.  Loss of coordination
15.  Visual or auditee hallucinations
16.  Nausea or projection
17.  Cyanosis
18.  Paralysis, weakness of the edges, or single or a lot of limbs
19.  Loss of consciousness.

Diagnosis

The most clinically vital consider identification an air embolism is that the patient's history. The symptoms themselves may be a manifestation of variety of disorders; but, a recent diving expedition or surgical operation would possibly purpose to associate in nursing air embolism. The surgical procedures that hold the most important risk of air embolism square measure surgical procedure performed with the patient within the sitting position, caesarean delivery, hip replacement and internal organ surgery with cardiorespiratory bypass. If Associate in Nursing air embolism may be a chance or a risk, the subsequent procedures may be distributed throughout or once surgery
1.      Chest X-Ray: gas bubbles will generally show au fait X-rays
2.      Stethoscope: to the trained ear, a millwheel whisper will generally be detected
3.      Variation in gases: if the patient is below anesthetic and still being monitored, the anesthetist could also be able to find a decrease within the quantity of CO2 free at the tip of Associate in Nursing expiration
4.      Doppler ultrasonography: this non-invasive procedure estimates blood flow through the vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves off current red blood cells. This procedure is commonly used throughout operations with a high risk of air embolism
5.      Transesophageal echocardiography: this technique uses sound to provide a extremely careful image of the center and therefore the vessels that cause it.

Air embolism interference


Diving is that the commonest reason behind air embolisms. The subsequent list will facilitate stop their occurrence:
1.      Limit the period and depth of dives
2.      always surface slowly and use safety stops to permit gases to be safely and     naturally reabsorbed
3.      Never dive with a chilly or a cough
4.      Show further caution if diving in significantly cold water7
5.      Avoid alcohol consumption before and once diving
6.      No vigorous activity before, throughout or once a dive
7.      Remain on the surface for adequate time between dives
8.      Keep hydrous before diving

9.      Leave a minimum of twenty four hours before attending to a better altitude, e.g. rock climbing or a flight.

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